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Table 3 Causes of crossover from radial to femoral approach

From: Transradial approach for coronary angiography and percutaneos coronary intervention: personal experience

Cause of crossover N (%)
Tortuous subclavian artery or aorta 16 (1.0%)
Radial artery spasm* 14 (0.9%)
Puncture failure 11 (0.7%)
Radial loop 9 (0.6%)
Small radial artery 4 (0.25%)
Subclavian artery occlusion 4 (0.25%)
Failure to engage the coronary arteries with guiding catheter 3 (0.2%)
Inadequate support of the guiding catheter 3 (0.2%)
Anatomic variations** 3 (0.2%)
Inability to cross the coronary lesion with balloon or stent 2 (0.1%)
Total 69 (4.4%)
  1. *Which did not respond to multiple doses of intra-arterial nitroglycerin and IV analgesia
  2. **Such as high origin of the radial artery, abnormal origin of the right subclavian artery, and abnormal right coronary artery origin