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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics

From: Clinical features and outcomes of infective endocarditis in Egypt: an 11-year experience at a tertiary care facility

Variable Total (n = 398), No. (%) Phase 1 (n = 237), No. (%) Phase 2 (n = 161), No. (%) P value
Gender, male 243 (61.1) 139 (58.6) 104 (64.6) 0.232
Age, years 30 (24–39)a 29 (23–38)a 30 (24–40)a 0.414
Underlying cardiac diseases 255 (64.1) 191 (82.3) 64 (43.0) < 0.001
 - Rheumatic heart disease 138 (34.7) 94 (40.5) 44 (29.5) 0.029
 - Congenital heart disease 32 (8.0) 24 (10.3) 8 (5.4) 0.088
 - Degenerative valve disease 10 (2.5) 7 (3.0) 3 (2.0) 0.550
 - Floppy valves 12 (3.0) 8 (3.4) 4 (2.7) 0.463
 - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3 (0.8) 3 (1.3) 0 (0) 0.225
 - Prosthetic valves IE 117 (29.4) 70 (29.5) 47 (29.2) 0.941
  • AV mechanical prosthesis 58 (14.6) 32 (13.5) 26 (16.1)  
  • AV bioprosthesis 5 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 2 (1.2)  
  • MV mechanical prosthesis 60 (15.1) 39 (16.5) 21 (13.0)  
  • MV bioprosthesis 1 (0.3) 0 (0) 1 (0.6)  
  • TV bioprosthesis 2 (0.5) 0 (0) 2 (1.2)  
 - Pacemaker/ICDb lead IE 5 (1.3) 2 (0.8) 3 (1.9) 0.324
 - Intravenous drug abuse 42 (10.6) 17 (7.2) 25 (15.5) 0.008
Healthcare associated IE 185 (46.5) 131 (55.3) 54 (33.5) < 0.001
 * Hospital admission within the last 3 months 151 (37.9) 104 (43.9) 47 (29.2) 0.01
 * Procedures within the last 3 months 95 (23.9) 71 (30.6) 24 (16.1) 0.001
  - Intravenous line 37 (9.3) 20 (8.4) 17 (10.6) 0.475
  - Early prosthetic valve IEc 27 (23.1) 20 (28.6) 7 (14.9) 0.69
  - Hemodialysis 15 (3.8) 10 (4.2) 5 (3.1) 0.387
  - Urinary catheter 2 (0.5) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.6) 0.646
  - Non cardiac surgery 16 (4.0) 9 (3.6) 7 (4.3) 0.784
  - Dental procedure 9 (2.3) 5 (2.1) 4 (2.5) 0.529
  - Abortion/dilation and curettage 4 (1.0) 2 (0.8) 2 (1.2) 0.231
Fever 335 (84.2) 205 (86.5) 130 (80.7) 0.123
 - Duration of fever, days 28 (13–60)a 21 (10–56)a 30 (14-60)a 0.010
Previous use of antibiotics 231 (58.0) 171 (72.2) 60 (37.3) < 0.001
Prior endocarditis 15 (3.8) 8 (3.4) 7 (4.3) 0.617
  1. aMedian, IQR interquartile range
  2. bICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  3. cPercentages are related to the number of prosthetic valve IE