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Table 3 Microbiological and antimicrobial data

From: Clinical features and outcomes of infective endocarditis in Egypt: an 11-year experience at a tertiary care facility

Variable Total (n = 398), No. (%) Phase 1 (n = 237), No. (%) Phase 2 (n = 161), No. (%) P value
Negative blood culture 275 (69.1) 152 (64.1) 123 (76.4) 0.009
Detected organismsa 155 (38.9) 83 (36.4) 72 (50.3) 0.008
 - Staphylococcal species 88 (22.1) 46 (35.7) 42 (50.0) 0.038
 - Streptococci 36 (9.0) 26 (20.2) 10 (11.9) 0.116
 - Enterococci 16 (4.0) 9 (3.8) 7 (4.3) 0.991
 - Gram-negative bacilli 32 (8.0) 22 (17.1) 10 (11.9) 0.304
 - Zoonosesb 21 (5.3) 18 (14.0) 3 (3.6) 0.009
 - Fungal infectionc 32 (8.0) 17 (7.2) 15 (9.3) 0.440
Basis of choice of antibiotics
 - Culture/Serology based 86 (21.6) 42 (17.7) 44 (27.3) 0.022
 - Empirical 312 (78.4) 195 (82.3) 117 (72.7)
Therapeutic antibiotics usedd (n = 1044) (n = 610) (n = 434)  
 - Anti-Staphylococcale 228 (21.8) 120 (19.7) 108 (24.9) 0.045
 - Aminoglycosides 310 (29.7) 162 (26.6) 148 (34.1) 0.009
 - Quinolones 20 (1.9) 3 (0.5) 17 (3.9) < 0.001
 - B-lactam and Cephalosporins 338 (32.4) 233 (38.2) 105 (24.2) < 0.001
  1. aOrganisms are detected by either blood culture, positive histology or positive serology
  2. bZoonotic infections included: Brucella, Bartonella, and Coxiella
  3. cFungal infections included: Aspergillus, Candida, Mucormycosis, and Penicillium
  4. dNumbers are calculated according to the total number of antibiotics used
  5. eAnti-Staphylococci included; Vancomycin, Linezolid, and Teicoplanin