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Table 4 Complications of IE

From: Clinical features and outcomes of infective endocarditis in Egypt: an 11-year experience at a tertiary care facility

Variable Total (n = 398), No. (%) Phase 1 (n = 237), No. (%) Phase 2 (n = 161), No. (%) P value
Overall complications 157 (39.4) 107 (45.1) 50 (31.1) 0.005
 - Heart failure 148 (37.2) 98 (41.4) 50 (31.1) 0.011
 - Severe sepsis 100 (25.1) 56 (23.6) 44 (27.3) 0.304
 - Renal failure (Creatinine > 2 mg/dl) 82 (20.6) 48 (20.2) 34 (21.1) 0.941
  • Need for dialysis 18 (4.5) 13 (5.5) 5 (3.1) 0.236
 - Acute mitral regurgitation 37 (9.3) 21 (8.9) 16 (9.9) 0.779
 - Papillary muscle rupture 4 (1.0) 2 (0.8) 2 (1.2) 0.545
 - Acute aortic regurgitation 26 (6.5) 14 (5.9) 12 (7.5) 0.585
 - Splenic infarction 38 (9.5) 18 (7.6) 20 (12.4) 0.123
 - Splenic abscess 19 (4.8) 7 (3.0) 12 (7.5) 0.044
 - Pulmonary infarction 31 (7.8) 10 (4.2) 21 (13.0) 0.001
 - Prosthesis-related complications 33 (8.3) 21 (8.9) 12 (7.5) 0.709
  • Dehiscence 17 (4.3) 12 (5.1) 5 (3.1)  
  • Para-valvular leak 10 (2.5) 5 (2.1) 5 (3.1)  
  • Stuck valve 6 (1.5) 4 (1.7) 2 (1.2)  
 - Mycotic aneurysm 24 (6.0) 11 (4.6) 13 (8.1) 0.167
 - Intracranial hemorrhage 26 (6.5) 17 (7.4) 9 (5.6) 0.481
 - Peripheral embolization 133 (33.4) 78 (32.9) 55 (34.2) 0.941
  • CNS embolization 50 (12.6) 34 (14.3) 16 (9.9) 0.152
Outcomes     
 - Response to medical treatment 185 (46.5) 90 (38.0) 95 (59.0) < 0.001
 - Indication for surgery 294 (73.9) 180 (75.9) 114 (70.8) 0.252
  • Surgery performed 176 (59.9) 113 (62.8) 63 (55.3) 0.092
 - In-hospital mortality 108 (27.1) 76 (32.1) 32 (19.9) 0.007