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Table 1 The baseline clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Once versus twice daily antihypertensive medications for the control of nocturnal blood pressure: a comparative study

VariableTotal
(n = 199)
No. (%)
Group 1
(n = 135)
No. (%)
Group 2
(n = 64)
No. (%)
p value
Gender, male94 (47.2)55 (40.7)39 (60.9)0.008
Employment114 (57.3)71 (52.6)43 (67.2)0.052
Illiteracy50 (25.1)38 (28.1)12 (18.8)0.153
Age*, years53.7 ± 10.153.4 ± 10.654.4 ± 9.00.502
Current anti-HTN medications    
 Beta blockers68 (34.2)31 (23.0)37 (57.8)< 0.001
 CCB42 (21.1)21 (15.6)21 (32.8)0.005
 ACEI39 (19.6)17 (12.6)22 (34.4)< 0.001
 ARBs31 (15.6)16 (11.9)15 (23.4)0.035
 Diuretics23 (11.6)16 (11.9)7 (10.9)0.851
 Combination pill69 (34.8)48 (35.8)21 (32.8)0.678
Compliance to medical treatment187 (94)123 (91.1)64 (100)0.014
Drug-related adverse effects8 (4.0)8 (5.9)0 (0)0.042
Comorbid conditions108 (54.3)64 (47.4)44 (68.8)0.005
 DM56 (28.1)29 (21.5)27 (42.2)0.002
 Dyslipidemia20 (10.1)7 (5.2)13 (20.3)0.001
 Smoking56 (28.1)31 (23.0)25 (39.1)0.018
  Cigarettes/day*24.7 ± 5.424.1 ± 5.025.2 ± 5.70.488
  Duration of smoking/years*23.4 ± 9.222.9 ± 9.724.0 ± 8.70.651
 CKD14 (7.0)7 (5.2)7 (10.9)0.138
 CAD20 (10.1)9 (6.7)11 (17.2)0.021
 CVA9 (4.5)6 (4.4)3 (4.7)0.597
 PAD6 (3.0)3 (2.2)3 (4.7)0.295
 Arthritis19 (9.5)17 (12.6)2 (3.1)0.025
 Heart Failure5 (2.5)1 (0.7)4 (6.2)0.038
 Depression/Anxiety5 (2.5)4 (3.0)1 (1.6)0.483
 BPH7 (3.5)2 (1.5)5 (7.8)0.036
FH of HTN133 (66.8)86 (63.7)47 (73.4)0.173
FH of DM100 (50.3)59 (43.7)41 (64.1)0.007
FH of CAD45 (22.6)25 (18.5)20 (31.2)0.045
FH of SCD26 (13.1)10 (7.4)16 (25.0)0.001
FH of stroke37 (18.6)18 (13.3)19 (29.7)0.006
Abnormal fundus examination25 (12.6)16 (13.7)9 (15.3)0.777
Abnormal ECG62 (31.2)33 (24.4)29 (45.3)0.006
 AF4 (2.0)2 (1.5)2 (3.1)0.386
 LVH24 (12.1)12 (8.9)12 (18.8)0.046
TOD75 (37.7)41 (30.4)34 (53.1)0.002
  1. *Mean ± SD
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