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Table 1 Clinical and echocardiographic findings in studied groups

From: Impact of the left anterior descending artery wrapping around the left ventricular apex on cardiac mechanics in patients with normal coronary angiography

 LAD wrapping (n = 52)LAD non-wrapping (n = 19)P value LAD wrapping (n = 52)LAD non-wrapping (n = 19)P value
Age (year)52.13 ± 7.1850.42 ± 8.670.40Apical Lat− 13.21 ± 5.3− 13.01 ± 2.50.874
BSA (m2)1.99 ± 0.131.93 ± 0.130.084Mean Lat− 15.09 ± 6.1− 15.29 ± 3.80.892
Hieght (cm)172.2 ± 14167.7 ± 190.300Basalinferior− 15.28 ± 4.9− 15.79 ± 6.20.725.
Weight (kg)89.2 ± 15.288.11 ± 25.30.997Mid inferior− 13.76 ± 5.8− 14.49 ± 5.10.634
BMI (kg/m2)1.72 ± 0.151.67 ± 0.190.542Apical inf− 13.75 ± 4.2− 13.44 ± 3.90.779
Hypertension32(61.5%)5(26.3%).008Mean inf− 14.27 ± 4.5− 14.57 ± 4.60.803
Diabetes mellitus31(59.6%)19(100%).001Basal ant− 17.32 ± 6.9− 15.9 ± 3.90.420
Smoking4(16.7%)6(46.2%).000Mid ant− 14.62 ± 7.4− 15.04 ± 2.40.785
FH of CAD13(25%)4(21.1%).730Apical ant− 13.77 ± 3.8− 14.73 ± 2.20.295
SBP (mmHg)132 ± 11132.4 ± 12.10.961Mean ant− 15.23 ± 5.0− 15.26 ± 2.60.985
DBP (mmHg)78.75 ± 7.8575.79 ± 6.720.149Global− 14.80 ± 3.6− 14.9 ± 2.70.836
HR (b/min)78.63 ± 10.9781.39 ± 6.310.318TTP (ms)348.41 ± 53339.1 ± 320.482
LAD (mm)37.06 ± 3.5835.31 ± 3.360.73TTP-SD (ms)40.68 ± 33.1230.06 ± 32.50.204
LA V(ml/m2)52.52 ± 15.7745.94 ± 9.720.102TTP-d (ms)131.3 ± 9198.0 ± 64.70.161
ESD (mm))29.96 ± 3.7528.61 ± 3.470.184Longitudinal SRsys(s-1)
EDD (mm)47.4 ± 4.745.0 ± 5.30.074Septum− 1.91 ± 7.34− 0.84 ± 0.420.53
Septum (mm)10.29 ± 2.09.70 ± 2.40.344Lateral− 0.92 ± 0.32− 0.91 ± 0.280.79
PW (mm)10.28 ± 1.99.60 ± 2.40.213Anterior− 0.92 ± 0.31− 1.06 ± 1.360.50
FS%36.7 ± 4.937.2 ± 5.10.704Inferior− 0.83 ± 0.34− 0.77 ± 0.190.46
EF%65.1 ± 9.9167.2 ± 5.660.405Global− 1.17 ± 2.02− 0.89 ± 0.360.56
LVM (gm)235.7 ± 55.8193.1 ± 34.30.003Longitudinal SRe(s-1)
LVMI (gm/m2)115.5 ± 2892.9 ± 290.004Mean septum1.01 ± 0.400.92 ± 0.210.345
Mitral E (cm/s)41.9 ± 21.550.3 ± 12.90.117Mean lateral1.03 ± 0.471 ± 0.270.819
Mitral A (cm/s)53.1 ± 2859.9 ± 110.325Mean anterior1.01 ± 0.460.92 ± 0.290.395
Mitral E/A78.9 ± 16.90.84 ± 0.190.417Mean inferior1.00 ± 0.380.90 ± 0.260.257
DT (msec)172.2 ± 38.4131.9 ± 29.80.000Global0.72 ± 0.610.39 ± 0.300.026
E/Ea4.68 ± 2.695.36 ± 1.70.302Longitudinal SRa(s-1)
Longitudinal εsys%Apical septum0.54 ± 0.250.42 ± 0.140.052
Basal septum− 15.10 ± 3.1− 15.7 ± 3.70.561Septum0.85 ± 1.720.50 ± 0.420.374
Mid septum− 14.67 ± 5.4− 15.1 ± 3.10.717Apical Lateral0.55 ± 0.230.39 ± 0.110.005
Apical septum− 13.59 ± 3.6− 13.2 ± 3.10.679Lateral0.57 ± 0.210.45 ± 0.160.026
Mean septum− 14.60 ± 3.8− 14.9 ± 2.40.798Apicalanterior0.53 ± 0.240.36 ± 130.004
basal lateral− 16.17 ± 8.6− 17.0 ± 5.90.697Anterior0.61 ± 0.260.16 ± 1.070.006
Mid lateral− 15.11 ± 5.9− 14.9 ± 3.80.880Global0.72 ± 0.610.39 ± 0.300.026
  1. BSA body surface area, BMI body mass index systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, LAD left atrium dimension, LAV left atrium volume, ESD left ventricular end-systolic diameter, EDD left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, EF ejection fraction, PW posterior wall, LVMI left ventricular mass index, E/A ratio of early to late diastolic mitral inflow velocity, DT deceleration time, E/Ea ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity, ɛsys peak systolic strain, SRsys peak systolic strain rate, SRe early diastolic strain rate, SRa late diastolic strain rate