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Table 1 Demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and comorbidities

From: Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes among hospitalized heart failure patients across different regions of Egypt

  Total population Alexandria Cairo Delta Upper Egypt P value
Number of patients 1645 914 249 409 73  
Demographics and traditional cardiovascular risk factors
Age, mean (± SD) 60.1 (± 12.1) 62.3 (± 11.6) 56.2 (± 13.2) 59.9 (± 12.1) 51.2 (± 11.2) < 0.0001
Age ≥ 70, % 21.1 25.1 12.5 20.5 4.1 < 0.0001
Females % 32.0 31.8 34.9 31.5 26.1 0.56
BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR) 29.4 (26.5–33.2) 29.7 (26.6–34.2) 29.2 (26.1–33.20) 29.4 (27.1–32.3) 26.1 (24.3–29.1) < 0.0001
BMI ≥ 30, % 45.5 48.7 40.2 46.2 19.2 < 0.0001
Smoker (current/ever), % 59.3 63.0 53.2 55.8 52.8 0.01
Female smokers, % 8.3 8.83 0.4 0.0 0.19 < 0.0001
Diabetes 44.2 48.6 45.6 35.5 34.3 < 0.0001
Insulin-dependent diabetes (as % of all patients) 21.5 18.9 30.6 22.3 19.2 < 0.0001
Hypertension, % 42.1 51.8 26.2 34.5 17.8 < 0.0001
Comorbidities
MI/angina, % 65.9 74.3 52.8 59.9 38.4 < 0.0001
History of PCI, % 10.0 10.1 19.0 5.4 7.6 < 0.0001
History of CABG, % 4.3 4.2 7.7 2.7 4.6 < 0.0001
Atrial fibrillation, % 25.1 22.4 29.5 27.9 28.8 0.04
PAD. % 5.1 6.5 4.4 2.2 6.9 0.01
Stroke/TIA, % 7.5 8.1 8.9 4.7 11.0 0.06
Chronic kidney disease, % 16.6 21.1 17.7 7.8 6.9 < 0.0001
COPD, % 14.1 15.6 15.2 12.2 1.37 0.005
Hepatic dysfunction, % 9.1 10.7 8.06 5.6 12.3 0.02
Chronic hepatitis C, % 8.5 10.1 8.8 5.6 4.6 0.2
Hemoglobin (g/dL) median, IQR 11.8 (10.3–13) 11.9 (10.3–13) 12.0 (10.5–13.2) 11.7 (10.5–13) 11.0 (10–12) 0.02
Hemoglobin ≤ 12 g/dL, % 58.8 57.5 53.3 61.1 79.4 0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, MI myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass surgery, PAD peripheral arterial disease, TIA transient ischemic attack, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IQR interquartile range