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Table 1 The evidence for the role of neurohormonal blockers (ACEI, BB, ARB, and MRA) in the primary prevention of acute, early, and late-onset anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC)

From: The role of neurohormonal blockers in the primary prevention of acute-, early-, and late-onset anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity

RCTs Sample size Follow-up period Neurohormonal blocker Parameters assessed Outcomes in reducing cardiotoxicity
Cardinale et al. [7] 114 12 months Enalapril LVEF, LVEDD, LVESD, troponin I Benefit
OVERCOME trial (Bosch et al. [8]) 90 6 months Enalapril, carvedilol LVEF, LV diastolic function Benefit
MANTICORE 101-BREAST study (Pituskin et al. [9]) 99 350 ± 18 days Perindopril, bisoprolol LVEF, LVEDVI Benefit for LVEF but not benefit for LVEDVI (both interventions)
Gupta et al. [10] 84 6 months Enalapril LVEF, troponin, NTproBNP, creatine kinase (CK) Benefit
Guglin et al. [11] 468 2 years Carvedilol, lisinopril LVEF Benefit
Georgakopoulos et al. [12] 147 1–3 years Metoprolol, enalapril LVEF No benefit
Maryam et al. [13] 91 30 days Carvedilol LVEF, diastolic function, troponin I Benefit
Tashakori Beheshti et al. [14] 70 1 week Carvedilol LVEF, strain, strain rate Benefit
Kalay et al. [15] 25 6 months Carvedilol LVEF, diastolic dysfunction Benefit
Abuosa et al. [16] 154 6 months Carvedilol LVEF, diastolic dysfunction Benefit
CECCY trial (Avila et al. [17]) 200 6 months Carvedilol LVEF, troponin I, BNP Possible benefit
Kaya et al. [18] 45 6 months Nebivolol LVEF, LVEDD, LVESD, NTproBNP Benefit
PRADA trial Gulati et al. [19] 130 10–61 weeks Candesartan, metoprolol LVEF, troponin I, BNP Benefit Candesartan.
Benefit candesartan + metoprolol.
No benefit metoprolol.
Cadeddu et al. [20] 49 One week after each chemo cycle Telmisartan LVEF, strain, and strain rate.
IL-6, reactive oxygen species.
Akpek et al. [21] 83 24.0 ± 3.9 weeks for intervention and 24.3 ± 2.9 on placebo Spironolactone LVEF, LVEDD, LVESD, LV diastolic function, troponin I, NTproBNP Benefit
  1. It demonstrates sample size, follow-up period, type of neurohormonal blockers, parameter assessed, and the outcomes from 15 randomized controlled trials