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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients admitted with heart failure

From: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted with acute heart failure: insights from a single-center heart failure registry in South India

Variables Total
n=449
HFrEF
n=296 (65.9%)
HFmrEF
n=90 (20%)
HFpEF
n=63 (14.03%)
p value
Age 59.9±13.3 59.1±13.6 61.2±11.7 61.3±13.5 0.212
Sex
Male 296 (65.9) 212 (71.62) 55 (61.1) 29 (46.0) 0.000
Female 153 (34.0) 84 (28.3) 35 (38.8) 34 (53.9) 0.000
Co morbidities
Diabetes 259 (57.6) 186 (62.8) 51 (56.6) 22 (34.9) 0.000
Hypertension 233 (51.8) 158 (53.3) 45 (50) 30 (47.6) 0.694
Obesity 32 (28.5) 24 (8.1) 4 (4.4) 4 (6.3) 0.482
CKD 60 (13.3) 44 (14.8) 12 (13.3) 4 (6.3) 0.212
COPD 35 (7.7) 26 (8.7) 5 (5.5) 4 (6.3) 0.547
CAD 236 (52.5) 180 (60.8) 46 (51.1) 10 (15.8) 0.000
Hepatic dysfunction 50 (11.1) 43 (14.5) 6 (6.66) 1 (1.5) 0.004
Past medical history
PCI 37 (8.2) 30 (10.1) 6 (6.6) 1 (1.5) 0.068
CABG 26 (5.7) 21 (7.0) 4 (4.4) 1 (1.5) 0.197
Valve procedures 19 (4.2) 4 (1.3) 4 (4.4) 11 (17.4) 0.000
CRT/ICD 9 (2) 7 (2.3) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.5) 0.736
H/o hospitalization for HF 79 (17.5) 59 (19.9) 11 (12.2) 9 (14.2) 0.264
Presentation
Acute denovo HF 301 (67) 170 (57.4) 72 (80) 59 (93.6) 0.000
Acute decompensated HF 148 (32.9) 126 (42.5) 18 (20) 4 (6.3) 0.000
Presentation
Acute denovo HF 301 (67) 170 (57.4) 72 (80) 59 (93.6) 0.000
Acute decompensated HF 148 (32.9) 126 (42.5) 18 (20) 4 (6.3) 0.000
Presenting symptoms
Pulmonary congestion 416 (92.6) 283 (95.6) 81 (90) 52 (82.5) 0.000
Angina 48 (10.6) 34 (11.4) 8 (8.8) 6 (9.5) 0.745
Syncope/presyncope 4 (0.8) 2 (0.6) 0 2 (3.1) 0.096
Palpitation 73 (16.2) 48 (16.2) 13 (14.4) 12 (19.0) 0.751
Pedal edema 362 (80.6) 253 (85.4) 68 (75.5) 41 (65.0) 0.001
Weight gain 290 (64.5) 241 (81.4) 30 (33.3) 19 (3.0) 0.005
Vitals
Heart rate# (bpm) 94.7±22.8 95.9±22.1 96±23.8 88.2±24.3 0.041
SBP# (mmHg) 121.17±25.1 119.3±25.2 126±24.3 124.8±25.4 0.079
Increased JVP 334 (74.3) 241 (81.4) 57 (63.3) 36 (57.1) 0.000
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Left bundle branch block 43 (9.5) 31 (10.4) 8 (8.8) 4 (6.3) 0.579
Sinus rhythm 362 (80.6) 255 (86.1) 65 (72.2) 42 (66.6) 0.000
ECHO      
Ejection Fraction 37.8 ±10.6 32.02±5.9 43.3±2.9 57.7±5.3 0.000
Grade I diastolic dysfunction 44 (9.7) 19 (6.4) 12 (13.3) 13 (20.6) 0.000
Grade II diastolic dysfunction 71 (1.5) 49 (16.5) 11 (12.2) 11 (17.4) 0.000
Grade III diastolic dysfunction 149 (33.1) 116 (39.1) 23 (25.5) 10 (15.8) 0.000
Left ventricular hypertrophy 11 (2.4) 8 (2.7) 1 (1.1) 2 (3.1) 0.642
Right ventricular dysfunction 15 (3.3) 6 (2.0) 3 (3.3) 6 (9.5) 0.011
Mitral regurgitation 289 (64.3) 209 (70.6) 50 (55.5) 30 (47.6) 0.000
Tricuspid regurgitation 115 (25.6) 85 (28.7) 23 (25.5) 7 (11.1) 0.013
RVSP 50.8 ±15.1 50.1±12.8 51.2±15.3 53.7±23.1 0.464
Pericardial effusion 93 (20.7) 67 (22.6) 20 (22.2) 6 (9.5) 0.000
Laboratory values      
Haemoglobin# (g/dL) 12.03 ±2.2 12.2±2.0 11.5±2.5 11.5±2.4 0.015
 - Male (<13g/dl) 144 (32) 100 (33.7) 27 (30) 17 (27) 0.518
 - Female (<12g/dl) 43 (9.5) 4 (1.3) 23 (25.5) 16 (25.3) 0.000
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)      
 - Admission 61.9±32 59.8±30.8 60.5±30.9 73.6±36.4 0.008
 - Peak 55.5±29.4 53.5±28.2 53.5±28.8 67.2±33.3 0.003
 - Discharge 62.±34.8 60.6±35.2 60±32.6 71.2±34.9 0.080
Renal dysfunction      
 - Male (Cr >1.4mg/dl) 89 (19.8) 68 (22.9) 15 (16.6) 6 (9.5) 0.036
 - Female (Cr >1.2mg/dl) 46 (10.2) 28 (9.4) 12 (13.3) 6 (9.5) 0.559
NT-proBNP 8020±9835 7467.7±8381[45] 13662 ±1431 0[10] 3788±4810. 6[11] 0.004
Hyponatremia 10 (2.2) 8 (2.7) 2 (2.22) 0 0.420
Hypokalemia 92 (20.4) 70 (23.6) 10 (11.1) 12 (19.0) 0.034
Hyperkalemia 34 (7.5) 21 (7.0) 9 (10) 4 (6.3) 0.416
Etiology      
IHD 215(47.8) 173 (58.4) 29 (32.2) 13 (20.6) 0.951
Non ischemic 171(38) 135 (45.6) 15 (16.6) 21 (33.3) 0.000
Clinical phenotype      
Warm & dry 32 (7.1) 9 (3.0) 3 (3.3) 20 (31.7) 0.000
Warm & wet 388 (86.4) 259 (87.5) 86 (95.5) 43 (6.8) 0.000
Cold & dry 1 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 0 0.773
Cold & wet 28 (7.4) 27 (9.1) 1 (1.1) 0 0.002
Interventions      
PCI 9 (2.0) 8 (2.7) 0 1 (1.5) 0.270
CABG 8 (1.7) 5 (1.6) 2 (2.22) 1 (1.5) 0.938
IABP 2 (0.4) 2 (0.6) 0 0 0.597
ICD 1 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 0 0.773
CRT 2 (0.4) 2 (0.6) 0 0 0.597
PPI 5 (1.1) 2 (0.6) 2 (2.22) 1 (1.5) 0.000
  1. CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CAD coronary artery disease, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, CRT cardiaresynchronization therapy, ICDimplantable cardioverter defibrillator, HF heart failure, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, JVP jugular venous pressure, RVSP right ventricular systolic pressure, NTproBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, IHD ischemic heart disease, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator, CRT cardiac resynchronization therapy, PPI permanent pace-maker implantation, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate