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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the studies

From: Direct comparison of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant versus warfarin for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of real-world evidences

Study Country Enrolment period Data source Drugs Participants CHA2DS2VASc HASBLED Follow-up Primary statistical method NOS
Adeboyeje G, 2017 [24] USA November 2009 to January 2016 HealthCore Integrated Research Environment A/D/R/W 44057 3.3 (mean) 2.1 (mean) 139–285 days (median) PSW 7
Amin A, 2017 [25] USA January 2012 to December 2014 Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services A/D/R/W 180020 4.4–4.7 (mean) 3.1–3.3 (mean) 196.1–203.8 days (median) PSM 7
Bang OY, 2020 [26] South Korea January 2015 and November 2016 Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service Database A/D/R/W 48389 4.4–4.52 (mean) 3.5–3.54 (mean) 105–175 days (median) PSW 8
Cha MJ, 2017 [27] South Korea January 2014 to December 2015 Korean National Health Insurance Service Database A/D/R/W 34833 3.51–3.6 (mean) NA 1.2 years (mean) PSM 8
Chan YH, 2018 [28] Taiwan June 2012 to December 2016 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database A/D/R/W 73074 3.26–3.89 (mean) 2.64–2.97 (mean) 0.76–1.47 years (mean) PSW 7
Chan YH, 2019 [29] Taiwan June 2012 to December 2017 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database A/D/E/R/W 89683 3.6 (mean) 2.6–2.7 (mean) 16 months PSW 8
Cho MS, 2019 [30] Korea July 2015 to December 2016 Korean National Health Insurance Service Database A/D/R/W 56504 3.5–3.7 (mean) 2.5–2.6 (mean) 15 months (median) PSW 8
Coleman CI, 2017 [31] USA January 2012 to June 2015 Truven MarketScan A/D/R/W 9684 5 (median) 3–4 (median) 0.5–0.6 years (mean) PSM 8
Costa OS, 2020 [32] USA November 2010 to 30 September 2018 Optum Research Database R/W 71226 3 (median) 2 (median) 2 years (median) PSM 8
Deitelzweig S, 2017 [33] USA January 2013 to September 2015 Humana Research Database A/D/R/W 32488 4.3–4.6 (mean) 2.9–3.1 (mean) 6.4–7.1 months (mean) PSM 7
Graham DJ, 2015 [34] USA October 2010 to December 2012 Medicare D/W 134414 NA NA 180 days PSM 8
Graham DJ, 2019 [35] USA October 2010 to September 2015 Medicare A/D/R/W 448586 NA NA 300 days PSM 8
Halvorsen S, 2017 [36] Norway January 2013 to June 2015 Norwegian Patient Registry
Norwegian Prescription Database
A/D/R/W 32675 2.46–3.09 (mean) NA 143–212 days (median) Cox proportional hazard model 7
Hernandez I, 2015 [37] USA October 2010 to October 2011 Medicare D/W 9404 NA NA 177 days (mean) PSW 8
Hsu CC, 2018 [38] Taiwan January 1999 to December 2015 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database D/R/W 1211 NA NA 1.7 years (median) PSW 7
Huybrechts KF, 2020 [39] USA October 2010 to September 2015 IBM MarketScan
Medicare
Optum Research Database
A/D/R/W 169112 3.01–3.05 (mean) 2.25–2.26 (mean) 1 year PSM 8
Kjerpeseth LJ, 2019 [40] Norway July 2013 to December 2015 Norwegian Prescription Database
Norwegian Patient Registry
Norwegian Cause of Death Registry
National Registry
A/D/R/W 30820 2.9–3.5 (mean) 2.2–2.6 (mean) 365 days Cox proportional hazard model 7
Kohsaka S, 2020 [41] Japan March 2011 to July 2018 Japanese Administrative Claims A/D/E/R/W 73989 3.8 (mean) NA 2 years PSM 8
Larsen TB, 2016 [42] Denmark August 2011 to October 2015 Danish National Prescription Registry
Danish National Patient Register
Danish Civil Registration System
A/D/R/W 61678 2.7 (mean) 2.2 (mean) 1.9 years (mean) PSW 8
Lauffenburger JC, 2015 [43] USA October 2010 to December 2012 Truven Health MarketScan
Medicare
D/W 64935 2.3–2.9 (mean) NA 358 days (mean) PSW 8
Lee SR, 2018 [44] South Korea January 2014 to December 2016 National Health Insurance Service Database E/W 16244 3.22–3.25 (mean) NA 0.3 to 0.9 years (median) PSM 9
Lee SR, 2019 (1) [45] South Korea January 2014 to December 2016 National Health Insurance Service Database A/D/E/R/W 24974 3 (mean) NA 1.2 years (median) PSW 9
Lee SR, 2019 (2) [46] South Korea January 2015 to December 2017 National Health Insurance Service Database A/D/E/R/W 116804 3.54–3.6 (mean) 2.69–2.71 (mean) 1 year PSW 9
Li X, 2017 [47] USA January 2012 to September 2015 Truven MarketScan
IMS PharMetrics Plus Database
Optum Clinformatics Data Mart
Humana Research Database
A/W 76940 3.2 (mean) 2.6 (mean) 179.2–199.9 days (mean) PSM 8
Lip YH, 2016 (1) [48] USA January 2013 to December 2013 Truven MarketScan
Medicare
A/D/R/W 29338 2.58–3.22 (mean) NA 90.37–127.55 days (median) Cox proportional hazard model 7
Lip YH, 2016 (2) [49] USA January 2012 to December 2014 Truven MarketScan
Medicare
A/D/R/W 45361 2.6–3 (mean) 2–2.2 (mean) 148.1–178.1 days (median) PSM 7
Maura G, 2015 [50] France July 2011 to November 2012 French National Health Insurance Information System
French Hospital Discharge Database
D/R/W 32807 2.4–3.6 (mean) 2–2.4 (mean) 80–87 days (median) PSM 9
Mitsuntisuk P, 2020 [51] Thailand January 2012 to April 2018 9 Hospitals in Thailand A/D/R/W 2055 3.25–3.86 (mean) 1.27–1.65 (mean) 1.9–2.82 years (mean) PSW 8
Nielsen PB, 2017 [52] Denmark August 2011 to February 2016 Danish National Prescription Registry
Danish Civil Registration System
Danish National Patient Register
A/D/R/W 55644 3.3 (mean) 2.4 (mean) 2.5 years PSW 8
Rutherford OCW, 2020 [53] Norway January 2013 to December 2017 The Norwegian Patient Registry
The Norwegian Prescription Database
A/D/R/W 65563 2.93–3.23 (mean) 2.25–2.43 (mean) 12 months PSM 8
Staerk L, 2017 [54] Denmark August 2011 to December 2015 Danish National Prescription Registry
Danish Civil Registration System
Danish National Patient Register
A/D/R/W 43299 2–2.2 (mean) 2.7–3.11 (mean) 204–386 days (median) Cox proportional hazard model 7
Villines TC, 2015 [55] USA October 2009 to July 2013 Department of Defense Database D/W 25586 3.4 (mean) 3.9 (mean) 217.2–297.3 days (mean) PSM 7
Yao X, 2016 [56] UA October 2010 to June 2015 OptumLabs Data Warehouse A/D/R/W 76354 3–4 (median) 2 (median) 6 months PSM 7
Yu HT, 2018 [57] Korea January 2016 to December 2016 National Health Insurance Service E/W 9537 4.2 (mean) NA 5 months (median) PSM 8
  1. A = apixaban, CHA2DS2-VASc = congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years or older, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, D = dabigatran, E = edoxaban, HASBLED = Hypertension, Abnormal renal or liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history, Labile international normalized ratio (INR), age ≥ 65 years, and antiplatelet Drug or alcohol use, NA = not available, NOS = Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, PSM = propensity score matching, PSW = propensity score weighting, R = rivaroxaban, W = warfarin