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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of the cardiac surgical patients dichotomized aortic cross-clamp time (N = 609)

From: Predictors of aortic clamp time duration and intensive care unit length of stay in elective adult cardiac surgery

  Aortic cross-clamp time p value
< 51 min ≥ 51 min
n = 356 n = 253
Sex    
Female 60 (16.9%) 49 (19.4%) 0.425
Male 296 (83.1%) 204 (80.6%)  
Age (years), mean (± SD) 55.22 (± 12.10) 56.20 (± 12.68) 0.335
Age group    
Age ≤ 65 years 309 (86.8%) 203 (80.2%) 0.029
Age ≥ 66 years 47 (13.2%) 50 (19.8%)  
Body Mass Index score, mean (SD) 26.63 (± 3.94) 27.17 (± 4.10) 0.107
Body Mass Index score classification    
Underweight 4 (1.1%) 0 0.046
Normal 100 (28.1%) 51 (20.2%)  
Pre-obesity 194 (54.5%) 153 (60.5%)  
Class I obesity 42 (11.8%) 32 (12.6%)  
Class II obesity 11 (3.1%) 14 (5.5%)  
Class III obesity 5 (1.4%) 3 (1.2%)  
Smoking habit    
No 262 (73.6%) 157 (62.1%) 0.002
Yes 94 (26.4%) 96 (37.9%)  
Comorbid    
No 155 (73.5%) 103 (40.7%) 0.486
Yes 201 (56.5%) 15 (59.3%)  
Comorbidity type = 351    
Left ventricular impairment 57 (16%) 49 (19.4%) 0.282
CVA 6 (1.7%) 5 (2%) 0.791
Hypertension 130 (36.5%) 106 (41.9%) 0.179
Diabetes mellitus 60 (16.9%) 42 (16.6%) 0.922
Obesity 58 (16.3%) 49 (19.4%) 0.326
Respiratory illness 28 (7.9%) 15 (5.9%) 0.358
EUROSCORE, mean (SD) 0.96 (± 0.82) 1.10 (± 0.75) 0.075
Type of underwent cardiac surgery    
Coronary artery bypass grafting—CABG 316 (88.8%) 215 (85%) 0.169
Aortic valve replacement—AVR 25 (7%) 27 (10.7%) 0.112
Mitral valve replacement—MVR 15 (4.2%) 11 (4.3%) 0.936
Total cardiac surgical time (min), mean (± SD) 239.53 (± 35.54) 287 (± 44.27) < 0.001
Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min), mean (SD) 102.94 (± 20.64) 253 (± 19.16) < 0.001
Mean body temperature during the cardiac operation, mean (± SD) degrees Celsius 33.80 (± 15.9) 32.51 (± 1.11) 0.197
Total ICU Blood Loss (cc) first 24 h, mean (SD) 441.22 (± 136.8) 581 (± 171.5) < 0.001
Required inotropic support    
No 334 (93.8%) 158 (62.5%) < 0.001
Yes 22 (6.2%) 95 (37.5%)  
Required intra-aortic balloon pump therapy    
No 334 (93.8%) 158 (62.5%) < 0.001
Yes 22 (6.2%) 95 (37.6%)  
Intensive care unit length of stay days, mean (SD) 1.21 (± 0.52) 2.26 (± 2.26) < 0.001