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Table 1 Evidence of inhaled prostacyclin analogues for CARDS

From: Inhaled prostacyclin analogues in COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: scientific rationale

References Study design (sample size) Regiment Outcome
Filippini et al. [31] Case report (1) Iloprost Improved SpO2, PO2/FiO2, and HRCT findings
DeGrado et al. [26] Retrospective observational (38) Epoprostenol or nitric oxide No significant improvement in oxygenation metrics
Sonti et al. [27] Retrospective observational (80) Epoprostenol Fifty percent of patients have a clinically significant improvement in PaO2/FiO2 after the initiation of epoprostenol
Li et al. [28] Retrospective observational (43) Epoprostenol (some with PP) The combination of inhaled epoprostenol and PP improved oxygenation compared to epoprostenol or PP individually
Franco et al. [29] Randomized controlled trial (actual 11) Epoprostenol Respiratory and cardiac/circulatory failure, oxygenation, time to extubation, ICU days, and hospital days (ongoing)
Kharma et al. [30] Randomized controlled trial (estimated 40) Iloprost Oxygenation parameters, rates of intubation, ventilation duration, ICU and hospital LOS, rates of proning, ECMO, and mortality (ongoing)
  1. CARDS, COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; HRCT, high resolution computed tomography; LOS, length of stay; PO2/FiO2, partial pressure arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen; PP, prone position; SpO2, oxygen saturation