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Table 1 Shows the assessment of the quality of studies in the meta-analysis

From: Meta-analysis and systematic literature review of COVID-19 associated bradycardia as a predictor of mortality

Criteria Study
  Chalkias et al. [16] Kumar et al. [11] Antwi-Amoabeng et al. [10]
1. Was the research question or objective in this paper clearly stated? Yes Yes Yes
2. Was the study population clearly specified and defined? Yes Yes Yes
3. Was the participation rate of eligible persons at least 50%? Yes Yes Yes
4. Were all the subjects selected or recruited from the same or similar populations (including the same time period)? Were inclusion and exclusion criteria for being in the study prespecified and applied uniformly to all participants? Yes Yes Yes
5. Was a sample size justification, power description, or variance and effect estimates provided? NA NA NA
6. For the analyses in this paper, were the exposure(s) of interest measured prior to the outcome(s) being measured? Yes Yes Yes
7. Was the timeframe sufficient so that one could reasonably expect to see an association between exposure and outcome if it existed? Yes Yes Yes
8. For exposures that can vary in amount or level, did the study examine different levels of the exposure as related to the outcome (e.g., categories of exposure, or exposure measured as continuous variable)? NA NA NA
9. Were the exposure measures (independent variables) clearly defined, valid, reliable, and implemented consistently across all study participants? Yes Yes Yes
10. Was the exposure(s) assessed more than once over time? NA NA NA
11. Were the outcome measures (dependent variables) clearly defined, valid, reliable, and implemented consistently across all study participants? Yes Yes Yes
12. Were the outcome assessors blinded to the exposure status of participants? NR No NR
13. Was loss to follow-up after baseline 20% or less? Yes Yes Yes
14. Were key potential confounding variables measured and adjusted statistically for their impact on the relationship between exposure(s) and outcome(s)? Yes Yes Yes
  1. *NA, not applicable; NR, not reported