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Table 2 Echocardiographic, catheterization and surgical data of patients' groups

From: Outcomes of bidirectional Glenn surgery done without prior cardiac catheterization

  Non-catheterization group N = 25 Catheterization group N = 68 P-value
Echocardiographic data
Moderate AVV regurgitation, n (%) 1 (4) 4 (5.9) 0.750
Branch pulmonary artery stenosis, n (%) 5 (20) 19 (28) 0.787
Aortic arch obstruction, n (%) 2 (2.9)  
Persistent LSVC, n (%) 3 (12) 9 (13.2) 0.875
Significant aortic/Neo aortic regurgitation  
Catheterization data
Hemodynamics
 EDP, mmHg   12 (9–15)  
 Mean PAP, mmHg   16 (13–19)  
 PVRi, WU m2   1.4 (0.9–2.2)  
Angiography, n (%)
 No/mild RPA stenosis   56 (82.3)  
 Moderate RPA stenosis   8 (11.8)  
 Severe RPA stenosis   4 (5.9)  
 No/mild LPA stenosis   59 (86.8)  
 Moderate LPA stenosis   5 (7.4)  
 Severe LPA stenosis   2 (3)  
 Aortic arch obstruction   2 (2.9)  
 Persistent LSVC   9 (13.2)  
 APCs   7 (10.3)  
Preoperative catheter interventions   2 (2.9)  
Surgical data
Bypass time, minute 44 (40–65) 46 (40–60) 0.903
Unilateral/Bilateral Glenn, n (%) 22 (88)/3 (12) 59 (86.8)/9 (13.2) 0.875
Antegrade pulmonary flow, n (%) 9 (36) 13 (19) 0.089
Additional surgical procedure
 Pulmonary artery plasty n (%) 5 (20) 21 (31) 0.787
 Atrioventricular valve plasty n (%) 1 (4) 4 (5.9) 0.750
 Atrial septectomy n (%) 12 (48) 19 (27.9) 0.055
 Pacemaker insertion (congenital heart block) n (%) 1 (1.5)  
 Operative complications n (%)  
  1. AVV atrioventricular valve, LSVC left superior vena cava, EDP end-diastolic pressure, PAP pulmonary artery pressure, PVRi indexed pulmonary vascular resistance, RPA right pulmonary artery, LPA left pulmonary artery, APCs aortopulmonary collaterals