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Table 2 Etiology and heart failure precipitating factors

From: Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes among hospitalized heart failure patients across different regions of Egypt

  Total population Alexandria Cairo Delta Upper Egypt P value
Number of patients 1645 914 249 409 73  
Etiology, %  
Ischemic 65.5 72.5 53.4 61.4 40.9 < 0.0001
Dilated 16.8 11.2 16.2 28.4 23.9 < 0.0001
Valvular 8.7 6.2 18.2 5.9 25.4 < 0.0001
Hypertensive 3.6 4.9 2.4 1.0 5.6 0.002
Other 5.4 5.2 9.8 3.3 4.2 0.004
HF precipitating factors for established cases, %  
ACS 14.0 18.6 8.1 9.3 6.0 < 0.0001
Infection 34.3 35.2 24.3 38.4 38.4 0.02
Uncontrolled hypertension 17.2 25.1 6.9 8.9 4.0 < 0.0001
Anemia 25.5 35.7 13.9 12.7 14.0 < 0.0001
Renal dysfunction 14.9 17.7 17.3 8.4 6.0 0.002
Atrial fibrillation 19.8 13.7 23.7 31.2 20.0 < 0.0001
Non-adherence with medication 10.4 4.0 12.8 20.7 24.5 < 0.0001
  1. ACS acute coronary syndrome