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Table 4 Pacing related changes in all the measured parameters at the three time intervals (pre-pacing, at 1 week and 6 months post pacing)

From: Effects of cardiac pacemakers on left ventricular volumes and function assessed by 3D echocardiography, Doppler method, and global longitudinal strain

Measurement Pre-pacing Post pacing at 1 week Post pacing at 6 months Test P value
EDV (ml) Fr  
 Single-chamber 102.6 ± 25.95 86.81 ± 25.09 88.93 ± 30.39 30.882* <0.001*
 Dual-chamber 109.0 ± 22.91 93.43 ± 18.80 97.04 ± 19.62 19.089* <0.001*
Sig. bet. Periods
 Single-chamber p1<0.001*, p2=0.002*, p3=0.338   
 Dual-chamber p1<0.001*, p2<0.001*, p3=0.307   
ESV (ml) F  
 Single-chamber 28.48 ± 9.67 28.96 ± 11.25 36.52 ± 21.87 4.411* 0.017*
 Dual-chamber 34.43 ± 11.75 34.91 ± 12.24 44.65 ± 15.66 8.077* 0.001*
Sig. bet. Periods
 Single-chamber p1=1.000 , p2=0.175, p3=0.040*   
 Dual-chamber p1=1.000 , p2=0.018*, p3=0.004*   
SV (ml) F  
 Single-chamber 74.07 ± 20.20 57.78 ± 17.47 52.56 ± 17.54 40.039* <0.001*
 Dual-chamber 73.7 ± 17.35 58.52 ± 17.02 52.35 ± 13.13 33.559* <0.001*
Sig. bet. Periods
 Single-chamber p1<0.001*,p2<0.001*,p3=0.018*   
 Dual-chamber p1<0.001*,p2<0.001*,p3=0.048*   
HR (bpm) F  
 Single-chamber 41.63 ± 8.45 64.04 ± 9.79 62.00 ± 6.45 186.913* <0.001*
 Dual-chamber 41.83 ± 9.36 77.96 ± 10.85 76.43 ± 9.43 107.586* <0.001*
Sig. bet. Periods
 Single-chamber p1<0.001*, p2<0.001*, p3=0.325   
 Dual-chamber p1<0.001*, p2<0.001*, p3=1.000   
COP (L/m) Fr  
 Single-chamber 3.07 ± 0.99 3.69 ± 1.13 3.27 ± 1.12 16.020* <0.001*
 Dual-chamber 3.04 ± 0.90 4.48 ± 1.14 3.96 ± 1.04 30.776* <0.001*
Sig. bet. Periods
 Single-chamber p1<0.001*,p2=0.247,p3=0.010*   
 Dual-chamber p1<0.001*,p2=0.002*,p3=0.027*   
EF (%) F  
 Single-chamber 72.41 ± 6.55 65.96 ± 8.41 59.56 ± 9.85 28.566* <0.001*
 Dual-chamber 69.35 ± 8.46 60.74 ± 10.62 54.35 ± 10.04 26.749* <0.001*
Sig. bet. periods
 Single-chamber p1<0.001*,p2<0.001*,p3=0.001*   
 Dual-chamber p1<0.001*,p2<0.001*,p3=0.011*   
GLS (%) F  
 Single-chamber -19.41 ± 3.53 -15.44 ± 4.09 -13.52 ± 4.66 62.924* <0.001*
 Dual-chamber -19.65 ± 3.98 -14.52 ± 4.39 -13.13 ± 4.45 50.749* <0.001*
Sig. bet. periods
 Single-chamber p1<0.001*, p2<0.001*, p3<0.001*   
 Dual-chamber p1<0.001*, p2<0.001*, p3=0.001*   
  1. Fr: Friedman test, sig. bet. periods was done using post hoc test (Dunn’s)
  2. F: F test (ANOVA) with repeated measures
  3. p: P value for post hoc test (Bonferroni) for comparison between different periods
  4. p1: P value for comparing between preoperative and post-operative (7–10 days)
  5. p2: P value for comparing between preoperative and follow-up after 6 months
  6. p3: P value for comparing between post-operative (7–10 days) and follow-up after 6 months
  7. *Statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05