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Table 1 Cut off values for the results of the cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests

From: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus; investigation of its association with classical cardiovascular risk factors using cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests: a cross-sectional study

Test Normal (zero) Borderline
(0.5)
Abnormal
(1)
Valsalva maneuver ≥ 1.21 1.11–1.2 ≤ 1.10
Heart rate response to standing up ≥ 1.04 1.01–1.03 ≤ 1.00
Heart rate response to deep breathing ≥ 15 11–14 ≤ 10
Blood pressure response to standing up ≤ 10 11–29 ≥ 30
Blood pressure response to a sustained handgrip ≥ 16 11–15 ≤ 10