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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: Does new onset and pre-existing atrial fibrillation predict mortality in COVID-19 patients?

Characteristics All patients (n = 5577) AF none (group 1) (n = 5209) Pre-existing AF (group 2) (n = 286) New-onset AF (group 3) (n = 82) P value
Age (year) 61.4 ± 16.4 63 (50–73) 73 (66–80) 79 (72.7–83.2)  < 0.001a,b,c
Gender (Male, %) 2777 (49.8) 2581 (49.5) 144 (50.3) 52 (63.4) 0.044b
HT (number, %) 2760 (49.5) 2458 (47.2) 247 (86.4) 55 (67.1)  < 0.001a,b,c
DM (number, %) 1505 (27) 1404 (26.9) 88 (30.8) 13 (15.9) 0.027c
CAD (number, %) 1188 (21.3) 990 (19) 166 (58) 32 (39)  < 0.001a,b,c
HF (number, %) 294 (5.3) 183 (3.5) 94 (32.6) 17 (20.7)  < 0.001a,b,c
COPD (number, %) 765 (13.7) 649 (12.5) 101 (35.3) 15 (18.3)  < 0.001a,c
CVE (number, %) 125 (2.2) 105 (2) 17 (5.9) 3 (3.7)  < 0.001a
HL (number, %) 686 (12.3) 638 (12.2) 35 (12.2) 13 (15.8) 0.590
CRF (number, %) 146 (2.6) 126 (2.4) 15 (5.2) 5 (6.1) 0.002a
Asthma (number, %) 228 (4.1) 219 (4.2) 8 (2.8) 1 (1.2) 0.211
Medications
ASA (number, %) 1210 (21.8) 1122 (21.5) 65 (22.7) 23 (28) 0.331
P2Y12 inhibitors (number, %) 357 (6.4) 313 (6) 36 (12.6) 8 (9.8)  < 0.001a
Anticoagulants (number, %) 1192 (24.4) 1040 (20) 131 (45.7) 21 (25.6)  < 0.001a,b,c
Statins (number, %) 607 (1.9) 531 (10.2) 63 (22) 13 (15.9)  < 0.001a
ACEI/ARB (number, %) 1908 (34.2) 1713 (32.9) 164 (57.3) 31 (37.8)  < 0.001a,c
BB (number, %) 1159 (20.8) 960 (18.4) 172 (60.1) 27 (32.9)  < 0.001a,b,c
CCB (number, %) 972 (17.4) 838 (16.1) 111 (38.8) 23 (28)  < 0.001a,b
Laboratory
Hb (g/dL) 13.3 (12.1–14.4) 13.5 (12.1–14.4) 12.9 (11.3–14.4) 12.5 (10.6–14.0)  < 0.001a,b
Wbc (103/µL) 7.21 (5.53–9.55) 7.12 (5.51–9.42) 8.17 (5.99–10.76) 10 (7.5–13.1)  < 0.001a,b,c
Platelet count (103/µL) 231.7 (184–289.2) 233 (186–291) 205 (159–262) 190 (132–261)  < 0.001a,b
AST (U/L) 33 (24.5–47.5) 32.7 (24.5–47) 33.2 (25.6–46.4) 52.7 (31.9–103.6)  < 0.001a,b
ALT (U/L) 31.3 (21–49.5) 31.5 (21.3–50) 27.5 (18.3–39.1) 39 (23.2–73.4)  < 0.001b,c
Ferritin, (ng/mL) 257.4 (111.4–547.7) 256.4 (110.9–539.1) 243.8 (95.7–506.2) 645.3 (229.4–1019.2)  < 0.001b,c
CRP (mg/L) 36.8 (12.8–75.7) 36.2 (12.5–74.7) 35.7 (13.4–77.2) 85.8 (37–142.7)  < 0.001b,c
D-dimer (μg/mL) 384 (104–1318) 363 (100–1238) 666 (189–2100) 3131 (1182–6574)  < 0.001a,b,c
Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 0.11 (0.02–0.57) 0.10 (0.02–0.54) 0.19 (0.03–0.94) 0.94 (0.27–5.50)  < 0.001b,c
Troponin I (ng/mL) 0.011 (0.003–0.1) 0.01 (0.002–0.085) 0.04 (0.01–0.14) 0.41 (0.07–1.24)  < 0.001b,c
NTproBNP (pg/mL) 444 (83.8–4916.5) 353.5 (71.2–3497.2) 6781 (2136–20,947) 8595 (954–15,745)  < 0.001a,b
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.88 (0.73–1.12) 0.87 (0.73–1.10) 1.12 (0.86–1.51) 1.23 (0.88–1.76)  < 0.001a,b
Na (mmol/L) 137 (134.6–139.1) 137 (134–139) 137 (134–140) 139 (135–143)  < 0.001b,c
K (mmol/L) 4.18 (3.89–4.49) 4.18 (3.89–4.48) 4.21 (3.91–4.57) 4.45 (4.11–4.78)  < 0.001a,b
Ca (mg/dL) 8.6 (8.3–8.9) 8.7 (8.32–9.05) 8.6 (8.23–8.9) 8.12 (7.79–8.5)  < 0.001a,b,c
Mg (mg/dL) 1.86 (1.72–1.98) 1.87 (1.73–2.02) 1.83 (1.68–1.96) 1.99 (1.74–2.21) 0.382
Glucose (mg/dL) 131 (136–179.3) 130 (105–177) 143 (112–185) 163 (133–199)  < 0.001b
COVID-19 PCR test (positive, %) 3809 (68.3) 3602 (69.1) 156 (54.5) 51 (62.2)  < 0.001a
Lung involvement in tomography (positive, %) 4753 (85.2) 4452 (85.5) 234 (81.8) 67 (81.7) 0.158
Disease progression
Total mortality (number, %) 754 (13.5) 633 (12.2) 66 (23.1) 55 (67.1)  < 0.001a,b,c
In-hospital mortality (number, %) 627 (11.2) 526 (10.1) 53 (18.5) 48 (58.5)  < 0.001a,b,c
Need for intensive care (number, %) 897 (16.1) 766 (14.7) 79 (27.6) 52 (63.4)  < 0.001a,b,c
Need for intubation (number, %) 493 (8.8) 410 (7.9) 43 (15) 40 (48.8)  < 0.001a,b,c
Recurrent hospitalization (number, %) 579 (10.4) 518 (9.9) 45 (15.7) 16 (19.5)  < 0.001a,c
Total hospital stay (day) 8 (5–13) 8 (5–13) 9 (5–14) 17 (9–26)  < 0.001b,c
  1. Abbreviations: AF atrial fibrillation HT hypertension, DM diabetes mellitus, CAD coronary artery disease, HF heart failure COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CVE cerebrovascular event, HL hyperlipidemia, CRF chronic renal failure, ASA acetylsalicylic acid ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, BB beta-blocker, CCB calcium channel blockers, Hb hemoglobin, Wbc white blood cell, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, CRP C-reactive protein, NTproBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, Na sodium, K potassium, Ca calcium, Mg magnesium, PCR polymerase chain reaction
  2. aStatistical difference between Group 1 vs. Group 2
  3. bStatistical difference between Group 1 vs. Group 3
  4. cStatistical difference between Group 2 vs. Group 3